Tanzania Nr. 5 in the World

Tanzania Nr. 5 in the World

It is unfortunately not on the FIFA football ranking list but the top 10 countries with "greatest annual forest loss" between 2010 - 2015.

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Urgently wanted New Generation of Tanzanian Conservationists


The tradition of conservation of nature in Tanzania was based on ethnic and spiritual beliefs or traditional mechanisms depending on the way you look at it. Spring catchments were protected, though the logic may have been clean water, incentives were more spiritual than public health oriented. Forest spirits were not disturbed by logging. Forests were obviously not only surviving because of traditional beliefs but also as a result of the scale and technology which were no match for the reproduction of biomass in those days. How long can the spirits last_reduced


The urbanisation and increased mobility, the successful introduction of Kiswahili as national language and development projects all contributed to the gradual erosion of traditions and ethnic cultures and traditional mechanisms for securing the national resources. The growing pressure on forest resources have by now eroded the effectiveness of the (traditional) conservation laws of the country, which started in some way or an other by the colonial rulers decades back. Joint management policy for forests is the current strategy to redirect the unsustainable exploitation of forest resources towards a sustainable one.

The present day conservation strategies and interventions are in essence Rural Development strategies, while at the time conservation of forests and other natural habitats became a policy issues there were no urban environments of any scale.

Destruction of the Pugu Forest has become an Urban Issue. Although some patches of rural communities still exist around these forests, communities like in Pugu Kajiungeni, Pugu Stesheni, Chanika, Mbuyuni, Kisarawe, Kipawe, Tazara, Kigogo Fresh and new settlements stretching gradually southwards along the Kazimzumbwi Forest, are not any longer different from urban communities closer to the City Centre. The mode of cooperation between the Government and project organisations and the surrounding communities around Pugu Forest is based on the "rural" experience which is relevant in a rural setting. The "rural" approach may be out of place in the case of the forests around Dar es Salaam here we are dealing with middle class families, businessmen and women, government officials. The community members who are involved in clearing of the Pugu Forests are however mostly unskilled youth with some eldery who did manage to join the urbanised labour force like the rest of the Pugu villagers.

This "rural" oriented approach also guides the REDD pilot project. With the frontier of urban dar es salaam gradually pushing the peri-urban settlements beyond the Pugu Forest boundaries, the target community to be involved in the conservation of Pugu Forest becomes more middle class and less rural, and considering their different interests, education, level and professions, this type of "local community" requires a different approach. First of all the strategy should be aiming at conservation rather than joint management and exploitation.

And that is where we come to the title of this article, it is time to involve the new generation urban middle class of Dar es Salaam rather than focusing on the communities around the Forest. Pugu Hills and Pugu Forest is a good rallying point for Nature Conservation in Tanzania because of the following reasons: birdwatcher_1


1. It is close to the major centre of education and policy making in Tanzania (23 km from askari monument)

2. It is relatively easy to protect compared to for instance the Marine Reserves along the shores of Dar es Salaam

3. Although Tanzania has more impressive and convincing nature treasures than Pugu Hills, it is its proximity and affordability which make Pugu Forest score higher than Serengeti as a rallying point for creating conservation awareness among citizens, while Serengeti will be out of reach for most city dwellers and possibly never to be visited by the majority of the City population.

4. Even if the present Pugu Forest will be cleared to the last bush, it will remain a Forest Reserve (like Pande) and even after some decades still be able to recover as a (tertiary?) Forest

Concluding, we do have time to build up our present group of Friends of Pugu into a growing permanent lobby, worried about Tanzania for the children of today and tomorrow.

Please become a friend and look for more friends, todays rains (December 20th, 2011) show that the spirits are on our side.

For registration follow link, in case of problems just use the booking form (without actually having to book for the Centre)

Art Work Human against Nature

Art Work Homo Sapiens against Nature (Who is the Winner?)

The Plastic Pugu Nature Reserve in the making. An Art Work wrapping trees in plastic trash from the Pugu Forest Nature Reserve is in the making. The ARt WOrk symbolises the struggle of this former global plant diversity hotspot against human activities which will lead to its destruction.

During hikes the guest of Pugu Hills Nature Centre collect plastics from the Forest and build a Plastic Tree(s) at the Centre by wrapping natural trees in human waste.

If homo sapiens wins from Nature the Centre's Forest will eventually become a very Arty Plastic Forest.



More Reasons For Pugu Conservation

Biomass Increasing in Protected Forests even with unfavourable precipitation


Research (2012) in Ghana shows that even under negative climatic conditions like the long drought spell of Ghana the biomass of protected forests increases. A shift in the forest composition where species which are more drought resistant replace more drought sensitive species seems to explain the increase in biomass. More than 10.000 trees were monitored in 1990 and 2010.

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Important Government Policy Change for Saving Pugu Forest

In a recent interview (2011) the director of the Forest and Beekeeping Division (Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism), Dr. Felician Kilahama, explained the new Government policy towards saving the coastal forests of Dar es Salaam. The change of policy is very encouraging and the resulting partnership between the Government NGOs and the private sector in saving the Pugu Forest, has been the main objectives of the Pugu Hills Nature Centre in its efforts to halt the ongoing destruction of the Pugu Forest Reserve during the last 20 years.

Under the new policy of the Government, NGOs and the private sector (Pugu Hills Nature Centre) are invited to assist in the restoration of this valuable greenbelt for Dar es Salaam.

The role of the Pugu Hills Nature Centre will be to mobilise its guests, schools, the international community and the new urban youth of Dar es Salaam to join in developing Nature Trails in the small patches of forest left. Activities will include planting of trees, training of guides and through the trails, increase of the interest in Nature and environmental friendly activities in the Pugu Forest, thus gradually eliminating destructive and illegal mining of charcoal and sandstone which is still taking place. The few Forest patches left for accommodating a Nature Trail are very limited and if the trail is not established soon together with the immediate elemination of the ongoing illegal clearing, the launching of the  Trails may require to be postponed some decade or more until there has any Nature recovered from the looming complete removal of all tall trees which are required to provide shade for the Nature Trails.

In order to regulate the tree planting and involvement of the volunteers, conservationists and anybody willing to contribute, an overall regeneration plan will need to be put in place. The "friends of pugu" through their contacts and in close cooperation with the Ministry are expected to propose such a plan for approval and implementation. But time is limited, even this coming rainy season (April 2012) planting should start and test plots established.

In an 1:33 min. interview, the Director of the Forest and Beekeeping Division Dr. Felician Kilahama summarises the new policy in the restoration efforts of the coastal forests of the Coast Region. The interview has been extracted from the TFCG video with the title" Changamoto za uhifadhi wa misitu ya pwani". (Conservation Challenge of the Coastal Forests"). The full TFCG video (2011) in Kiswahili can be seen on youtube.



Interview Dr. Kilahama Interview (2011) with Dr. Felician Kilahama about the new Government policy aiming at conservation of the Coastal Forests of Dar es Salaam including Pugu Forest.